Endocrine Terms, Issues, & Treatment


Endocrinology deals with the glands of the body which release hormones, or chemical messengers, into the blood stream to coordinate growth, metabolism, body weight control, temperature, and child-bearing.

Patients with diabetes and glandular problems of the pancreas, thyroid, adrenal, pituitary and parathyroid often seek out an endocrinologist for specialty evaluation.

Additionally, those with advanced bone loss and calcium balance problems are referred to an endocrinologist.



A chemical produced by an endocrine gland and released into the blood. It travels to other organs of the body where it produces its effect.


Symptoms of increased metabolism due to excess thyroid hormone in the blood. It may be due to an abnormal thyroid gland or from taking thyroid medication.



Symptoms of decreased metabolism due to a deficiency of thyroid hormone in the blood.



A large gland behind the stomach which secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. Embedded in the pancreas are the islets of Langerhans, which secrete into the blood the hormones insulin and glucagon.


Parathyroid Glands

Four small glands located in the neck, near the thyroid gland. They produce parathormone which controls calcium metabolism. 


Pituitary Gland

A small gland the size of a peanut that is located behind the eyes of the base of the brain. It secretes hormones that control other glands (thyroid, adrenal, testicles and ovaries) as well as growth. 



A large ductless gland in the neck which secretes hormones regulating growth and development through the rate of metabolism.